# Filesystem Paths

Many of our build processes are made up of a mix of Cygwin tools (makepkg/bash for starters) and native Windows tools. When building things the paths of input and output files and directories are often communicated between them via process arguments or environment variables. The problem here is that those are in many cases not compatible:

• C:\nope is not a valid Unix path and \n might make problems when being interpreted as an escape sequence.
• C:/nope is slightly better, because, while it's not a valid Unix path, if it's just forwarded to some other Windows tools things might work out fine.
• /foo is both a valid Windows path (drive relative path evaluating to C:\foo for example) and a valid Unix path, but resolves to a different path. Again, if it's just forwarded to some other Unix tool then things might work out fine.
• foo/bar.txtjust works, relative to the current working directory, while foo\bar.txt is only OK with native tools.
• Path lists, commonly used in environment variables like FOO=/foo:/bar also will never work, since paths are separated by ; on Windows and not :, similarly c:/foo could be interpreted as a Unix path list containing c and /foo when a path list is expected.

The only solution here is to avoid mixing Unix/Cygwin and native tools outside of makepkg (preferred) or convert them when they get passed between the different programs. For the latter MSYS2 provides an automatic conversion that just works automatically in many cases.

## Manual Unix ⟷ Windows Path Conversion

MSYS2 ships the Cygwin tool cygpath by default which allows converting paths between the Unix format, Windows format, and mixed format, see cygpath --help for details.

$cygpath -u C:\\foo /c/foo$ cygpath -m /mingw64/bin
C:/msys64/mingw64/bin
$cygpath -w /mingw64/bin C:\msys64\mingw64\bin  ## Automatic Unix ⟶ Windows Path Conversion ### Process Arguments When calling native executables from the context of Cygwin then all the arguments that look like Unix paths will get auto converted to Windows. For example when calling native Python from the context of bash: $ python3 -c "import sys; print(sys.argv)" --dir=/foo
['-c', '--dir=C:/msys64/foo']
$python3 -c "import sys; print(sys.argv)" --dir=/foo:/bla ['-c', '--dir=C:\\msys64\\foo;C:\\msys64\\bla']  While this is helpful in many cases it's also not perfect and in corner cases converts arguments that look like Unix paths while they are not, or detects lists of Unix paths where there are none. For these cases you can exclude certain arguments via the MSYS2_ARG_CONV_EXCL environment variable: $ MSYS2_ARG_CONV_EXCL='--dir=' python3 -c "import sys; print(sys.argv)" --dir=/foo
['-c', '--dir=/foo']


MSYS2_ARG_CONV_EXCL can either be * to mean exclude everything, or a list of one ore more arguments prefixes separated by ;, like MSYS2_ARG_CONV_EXCL=--dir=;--bla=;/test. It matches the prefix against the whole argument string.

### Environment Variables

Similar to process arguments, paths in environment variables get converted too:

$MYVAR=/foo python3 -c "import os; print(os.environ['MYVAR'])" C:/msys64/foo$ $MYVAR=/foo:/bar python3 -c "import os; print(os.environ['MYVAR'])" C:\msys64\foo;C:\msys64\bar  You can disable the conversion with MSYS2_ENV_CONV_EXCL: $ MSYS2_ENV_CONV_EXCL='MYVAR' MYVAR=/foo python3 -c "import os; print(os.environ['MYVAR'])"
/foo


MSYS2_ENV_CONV_EXCL can either be * to mean exclude everything, or a list of one ore more environment variable prefixes separated by ;, like MSYS2_ENV_CONV_EXCL=FOO;BAR;/test. It matches the prefix against the following string KEY=VALUE.

Cygwin special cases some environment variables that are known to be paths or path lists and does less guessing with them. For example HOME will never be interpreted as a path list even if it contains :.

## Windows ⟶ Unix Path Conversion

You might wonder why calling things like ls C:/ might work and suspect that again auto conversion is used, but that's not the case:

$/usr/bin/python3 -c "import sys, os; print(sys.argv, os.listdir(sys.argv[1]))" C:/ ['-c', 'C:/'] ['$Recycle.Bin', '$SysReset', ...]  Cygwin which provides the POSIX API will just forward the paths to the Windows API as is. This works as long as the tool does not try to interpret the path too much and just forwards it to the system API. If that doesn't work in your case you can use cygpath: $ /usr/bin/python3 -c "import sys, os; print(sys.argv, os.listdir(sys.argv[1]))" "$(cygpath -u C:/)" ['-c', '/c/'] ['$Recycle.Bin', '$SysReset', ...]  ## The package prefix (hack) When looking at some of our package recipes you might have seen something like: MSYS2_ARG_CONV_EXCL="--prefix=" \ meson \ --prefix="${MINGW_PREFIX}" \
...


which results in meson --prefix=/mingw64 ... being executed.

/mingw64 in this case is the UNIX prefix where the package will be installed to and in addition is a valid Windows path (a drive relative path, so C:\mingw64), so the native build tools will concatenate it with DESTDIR and copy things to the right place.

In the native Windows world this path doesn't make much sense, as C:\mingw64 likely doesn't match where the software lives, but ideally all native Windows tools are relocatable and wont use the prefix at runtime anyway. And if they do and happen to call Cygwin tools then the prefix resolves to the correct path because the Cygwin root path is relocatable.